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Pharmaco Nutritional approach in Metabolic disorders (Probiotics )

Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone.

A new study by Danisco indicates that probiotic strain Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis subsp. lactis 420 (B420) could significantly improve the MetS by counteracting the adverse effects of a high-fat diet. The outcome of this study revealed that, the probiotic treatment led to significant reduction in tissue inflammation and metabolic endotoxaemia. A different but related multicenter, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted on 87 subjects with high body mass index who were randomly assigned to receive Lactobacillus (L.) gasseri SBT 2055 (LG2055). In this study, the probiotic LG2055 was provided as an adjunct culture in yoghurt that had been fermented using conventional yoghurt cultures, Streptococcus thermophilus and L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus; yoghurt without LG2055 was used as placebo. The outcome of this study concludes that the probiotic strain significantly reduced the abdominal adiposity, body weight and other measures suggesting its beneficial influence on metabolic disorders.

In a subsequent study, the same research workers used visceral adiposity as a measure of obesity, and the level of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) in the blood as an inflammatory marker that is elevated in obesity.  The results of the study showed that the probiotic strain inhibited the enlargement of visceral adipocytes and prevented up regulation of sICAM-1.

Melatonin, Magnesium, Zinc and B12 combination in sleep disorders J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jan;59(1):82-90. The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial Rondanelli  M et al To determine whether nightly administration of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc improves primary insomnia in long-term care facility resident.

The primary goal was to evaluate sleep quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire (LSEQ), the Short Insomnia Questionnaire (SDQ), and a validated quality-of-life instrument (Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Survey (SF-36)) were administered as secondary end points. Total sleep time was evaluated using a wearable armband-shaped sensor. All measures were performed at baseline and after 60 days.

The food supplement with melatonin Mg, Zn resulted in considerably better overall PSQI scores than placebo (difference between groups in change from baseline PSQI score=6.8; 95% confidence interval=5.4-8.3, P<.001). Moreover, the significant improvements in all four domains of the LSEQ (ease of getting to sleep, P<.001; quality of sleep, P<.001; hangover on awakening from sleep, P=.005; alertness and behavioral integrity the following morning, P=.001), in SDQ score (P<.001), in total sleep time (P<.001), and in SF-36 physical score (P=.006) suggest that treatment had a beneficial effect on the restorative value of sleep.

The administration of nightly melatonin, magnesium, and zinc appears to improve the quality of sleep and the quality of life in long-term care facility residents with primary insomnia